Patna is the capital of the Indian State of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India. Ancient Patna, known as Patliputra, was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Gupta, Pala, and Suri dynasties. History of Patna dates back in the Indian history when the town was called Patliputra and later on it was also called Kusumpara.
There are several theories regarding the sources of the name Patna:-
- It is etymologically derived from Patan, the name of the Hindu goddess, Patan Devi.
- It comes from Pattan, since the city, located near the confluence of four rivers, has been a thriving river port.
- It may be a short form of Pataliputra, one of most ancient names of this city.
- The Greeks called it Palibothra, Megasthenes, the Greek historians, referred to it in Greek as Polibothra or Palimbotra.
- The place appears in the records of the Chinese traveller, Fa Hien, as Pa-lin-fou.
- The city has been known by the various names during its more than 2,000 years of existence- Pattigram, Patliputra, Kusumpur, Pushpapura, Azimabad, and the present-day Patna.
- Patna received its current name during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, whose tomb is at Sasaram, near Patna.
The first reference to the ancient region of Patna is found about 2,500 years ago in Jain and Buddhists scriptures. Patna became significant around the year 490 BCE when Ajatashatru, the king of Magadha, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajagaha to a more strategically located place to combat the Licchavis of Vaishali. With the rise of the Mauryan Empire, the place became the seat of power for the sub-continent. With the disintegration of the Gupta Empire, Patna passed through uncertain time. During the 17th century, Patna became a center of international trade. The British started with a factory in Patna in 1620 for trading in calico and silk. Patna continued to be the capital of the state of Bihar after independence in 1947, through Bihar itself was partitioned again in 2000 when Jharkhand became a seprate state of the Indian union.
Patna is home to much tourist attraction. The cultural heritage of Bihar is reflected in its many ancient monuments. Some of the places of interests in this city are as follows:-
- Hanuman Mandir – Deity of Patnaite.
- Takht Shri Harmandir Saheb – Birth place of Guru Govind Singh.
- Patna Planetarium – Famous for regular film related to astronomy.
- Shri Krishna Science Centre, West Gandhi Maidan – Famous for galleries Fun Science, Popular Science, Evolution and Oceans.
- Patna Zoo Sanjay Gandhi Jaivik Udyan – Famous for different kinds of creatures.
- Golghar – Oldest British building in Patna.
- Patna Museum ( Jadu Ghar Patna ) – Famous for fine collection of stone and bronze sculpture and terracotta figures of Hindu and Buddhist artists.
- Begu Hajjam’s Mosque – Built in 1489 by the Bengal ruler Alauddin Hussain Shah.
- Kumhrar – The site of the ruins of the Ashokan Patliputra.
- Agam Kuan – Literally the unforgettable well.
- Saheed Smark – Build in the memory of seven extra students who attempted to hoist the flag on the top of Bihar Vidhan Sabha in 1942 during British Rule.
- Maner Sharif – Shrine of Makhdoom Yahya Maneri.
- Phulwari Sharif – This is a place of great Religious and Historical importance for Muslim.
- Imarat-E-Shariya – or the “Shariyat” of Patna looks after whole of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orrisa, West Bengal and all North Eastern state.
- Moin-Ul-Haque Stadium – Cricket Ground which is 2nd largest in India.
- Pathar Ki Masjid – Built by Pervez, the elder brother of Shah Jahan and the first Mughal prince who made Bihar his residence.
- Qila House (Jalan House) – Houses an interesting museum famous for its jade collection.
- Sadaqat Ashram – On the banks of the river Ganga which later became the retreat of Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
- Padri Ki Havelli – Deemed to be the oldest church in Bihar dating back to 1772.
- Bankipore Club – On the banks of the river Ganges.
- Congress Maidan – A historic ground that symbolizes the Indian independence movement in Bihar.
- Darbhanga House – also called Nav Lakha building. It houses the Kali Mandir, which has been a place of worship of the goddess.
- Patna College Administrative block building – was initially part of a Dutch opium factory established on the banks of the Ganga as a part of the flourishing Opium Trade from the northern China and Nepal region.
- Patna Gandhi Maidan – called the Patna Lawns during the British Raj.
- Anugrah Seva Sadan – established to serve as a care home for the poor.
- Kargil Chowraha – built in the memory of our brave soldiers.
- Naghol Kothi – It is an example of unique architecture of midlive time.
- Danapur Cantonment – 12km from Patna. Its centre for Bihar Regiment.
Patna is one of the oldest major centres of learning in East India. Some of the most important colleges and schools of Patna are as follows:-
- Patna College
- Science College
- Bihar College of Engineering
- B.N. College
- Magadh Mahila College
- Patna Women’s College
- Women’s Training College
- Patna Medical College
- College of Commerce
- B.S. College
- J.D. Women’s College
- Guru Govind Singh College
- R.P.S. Law College
- R.P.S. Mahila College
- Siddhartha Mahila College
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, No.1, Kankarbagh
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, No.2, Bailey Road
- Kendriya Vidyalay, Danapur Cantt., Patna
- St. Joseph’s Convent High School
- St. Michael’s High School
- St. Xavier’s High School
- Notre Dame Academy
- Don Bosco Academy
- Loyola High School
- Dayanand Anglo Vedic School- Khagaul
- Delhi Public School
- RPS (Residential Public School)
- Gyan Niketan
- Mount Carmel High School
- St. Karen’s High School
- Baldeva Inter School
- Prakritik School, Jay Prakash Nagar, Patna
- International School, Patliputra Colony, Patna
- St. Joseph’s High School.
THE LANGUAGE OF PATNA
Hindi and Urdu are the official languages but many others are spoken. The native dialect is Magadhi or Magahi, named after Magadha, the ancient name of Bihar. Other widely spoken dialects and languages include Angika, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bengali and English.
Head Quarters: Patna
Sub Divisions: Patna, Nalanda, Rohtas, Kaimur, Buxar, Bhojpur.
Blocks: Athmalgola, Bakhtiyarpur, Barh, Belchhi, Bihta, Bikram, Danapur, Daniyawaan, Dhanarua, Dulhin Bazar, Fatuha, Ghoswari, Khusrupur, Maneer, Masaurhi, Mokama, Naubatpur, Paliganj, Pandarak, Patna Sadar, Phuwari Sharif, Punpun, Sampatchak.
Agriculture: Grain, Sugarcane, Sesams, Medium grained Patna Rice.
Industry: Indian oil depot, Golden ice-cream, Balajee furniture industry, Berger paint, Kanti factory, Cement Stone Brick factory, Bata factory.
River: Ganga, Sone, Gandak, Punpun.
OFFICIAL COUNT OF POPULATION IN PATNA
INFORMATION ABOUT POPULATION
- Population: 47,09,851
- Males: 25,14,949
- Females: 21,94,902
- Population density: 1471/km2
- Sex Ratio: 873
- No. of Sub-Division: 6
- No. of Blocks: 23
- No. of Villages: 1433
- Literacy Rate: 63.82%
Area covered by PATNA
- Area: 3202 km2
- Latitude: 25 o 35’ N
- Longitude: 85 o 12’ E
- Altitude: 53m
- Average rainfall: 1200cm
- Temperature Max.: 30 oc ; Min.: 17 oc
- STD Code: 0612
FACILITY PROVIDED TO REACH PATNA
How to reach
Patna was one of the first places in India to use horse-drawn trams for public transport. Public transportation today is provided for by buses, auto and local trains, with auto rickshaws being the most popular] The government has placed orders for] over 50 low floor buses to ease congestion on city roads under JNNURM.
The city is a major railway hub and has five major stations: Patna Junction, Rajendranagar Terminal, Gulzarbag, Danapur Junction and Patna Sahib. The construction of India’s longest road-cum-rail bridge is underway on the banks on the Ganges nearby and will connect Patna to Pahleja Ghat. When completed it will be the second longest rail-cum-road bridge in the world at 4.55 kilometers (2.83 mi). There has recently been a plan for a metro rail system as Nitish Kumar has hired engineers and civil planners to look into the most ideal location. Furthermore, a layout for a more feasible monorail has been submitted and is awaiting approval. It will be less costly and less time consuming. By the year 2021, Patna is expected to be a very modern metropolitan city.
There is an airport, Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, which is classified as a restricted international airport . The arrival of several low-cost carriers and a number of new destinations have caused a growth in air traffic in recent years, as has an improvement in the situation with regard to law and order. For the period April to December 2009 the airport ranked first in a survey of 46 airports in the country in terms of percentage growth of domestic passengers as well as domestic aircraft movement.
The city is served by several major road highways and state highways, including National Highways 19, 30, 31, and 83 . It is 1,015 kilometers (631 mi) from Delhi, 1,802 kilometers (1,120 mi) from Mumbai and 556 kilometers (345 mi) from Kolkata.
Patna has a fixed terminal on National Waterway No. 1 which was established in October 1986. This 1,620 kilometers (1,010 mi) route of navigable water runs from Haldia on the Bay of Bengal, across the extremity of Jharkhand province, across the center of Bihar and then to Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.